An Internet marketing campaign is not an isolated, one-off proposal. Any company that plans on using it once is certain to continue to use it. An individual who is knowledgeable about all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign and who has strong interpersonal skills is well-suited to maintain an ongoing managerial role on a dedicated marketing team.
If your best friend, who has similar taste to you, recommends a product, you’re likely to try it and like it as well. Otherwise, he or she wouldn’t have recommended it in the first place. Thus, as a marketer, once you identify your most successful demographic, you’ll want to find others similar to them—like their friends. The same thing works with influencers: if you respect an influencer’s style and feel connected to them, chances are you’ll try a product they recommend (if you’re in the market for said product), and you’ll probably like it.
Internet Marketing helps your business keep up with the updates in technology. Only 20 or 30 years ago people were using thick books such as the Yellow Pages to find a product or a service. With the internet providing a much simpler, and more structured solution it is very easy to understand why the majority of the population now use the internet to find what they are looking for. With the current economy, many small businesses have found that a move to the internet is exactly what they need to take their business to the next level. The move to the internet means having a proficient internet marketing strategy that can help you handle the huge expansion of conducting business over the internet.
Dove monitored the campaign in real-time, responded to conversations and optimized its activities for better engagement and market penetration, ensuring the video was seen by the right people. It is crucial for you to track the results of your campaign. By using the technology you too can deliver an omni-channel customer experience. Analytics will give you in-depth insights into your customers and capture their buying behavior.
Promotional videos can foster trust as well. Some consumers are still skeptical about buying products and services on the internet because they fear fraud and cheating. But effective marketing videos present your products in a conversational form. That creates a sense of individual approach which is why 57% of consumers say that videos gave them more confidence to purchase online. 

According to the U.S. Commerce Department, consumers spent $453.46 billion on the web for retail purchases in 2017, a 16.0% increase compared with $390.99 billion in 2016. That’s the highest growth rate since 2011, when online sales grew 17.5% over 2010. Forrester predicts that online sales will account for 17% of all US retail sales by 2022. And digital advertising is also growing strongly; According to Strategy Analytics, in 2017 digital advertising was up 12%, accounting for approximately 38% of overall spending on advertising, or $207.44 billion.
Amir runs Apricot, an agency that creates video campaigns stimulating client growth. Prior to launching the business, he worked in film distribution, devising marketing strategies for both cinematic and straight to DVD releases. Away from Apricot, he’s coached on Seth Godin’s altMBA program, reads avidly, and studies persuasion and the related fields in depth. Follow Amir on Twitter at @apricot_amir.
Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[34] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.
On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost, the study says that it records "a positive value differential, both in the short term and long term, between customers acquired through a referral program and other customers. Importantly, this value differential is larger than the referral fee. Hence, referral programs can indeed pay off."[7]

Developing and monetizing microsites can also garner a serious amount of sales. These sites are advertised within a partner site or on the sponsored listings of a search engine. They are distinct and separate from the organization’s main site. By offering more focused, relevant content to a specific audience, microsites lead to increased conversions due to their simple and straightforward call to action.

Many small and medium businesses can join a business network such as BNI (Business Network International) which has chapters all over the world to help its members promote business through referrals. Each referral is much more valuable than a lead as conversion rate could be near 90-100% while a qualified lead gained from any other forms of marketing have one-fourth chance of being converted to business.
But that didn’t stop Rovio from switching up their strategy. They decided to build a fanbase in smaller European markets. Three months later, Angry Birds hit the top spot in the Finnish app store after only a few hundred downloads. And from Finland, it snowballed to hit number one across Sweden, Greece, and Denmark. In the process, the app gained 40,000 downloads.

Our agency can provide both offensive and defensive ORM strategies as well as preventive ORM that includes developing new pages and social media profiles combined with consulting on continued content development. Our ORM team consists of experts from our SEO, Social Media, Content Marketing, and PR teams. At the end of the day, ORM is about getting involved in the online “conversations” and proactively addressing any potentially damaging content.

Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]


The second reason behind this shift in video marketing strategy is the way in which platforms have evolved in response to this new consumer behavior. As YouTube’s product manager Nicky Rettke explained earlier this year, “Historically, video advertising hasn’t been actionable, optimizable, or measurable against direct response objectives. The only way someone could ‘act’ on a video was to watch it.” That changed in 2018. On YouTube, for example, new video formats like TrueView for action allow marketers to start optimizing for a specific user action, like signing up for a service or buying a product.
Because users have different operating systems, web browsers[84] and computer hardware (including mobile devices and different screen sizes), online ads may appear to users differently from how the advertiser intended, or the ads may not display properly at all. A 2012 comScore study revealed that, on average, 31% of ads were not "in-view" when rendered, meaning they never had an opportunity to be seen.[85] Rich media ads create even greater compatibility problems, as some developers may use competing (and exclusive) software to render the ads (see e.g. Comparison of HTML 5 and Flash).
Book print ads | Online shopping | Matrimonial | Astrology | Jobs | Tech Community | Property | Buy car | Bikes in India | Free Classifieds | Send money to India | Used Cars | Restaurants in Delhi | Remit to India | Buy Mobiles | Listen Songs | News | TimesMobile | Real Estate Developers | Restaurant Deals in Delhi | Car Insurance | Gadgets Now | Free Business Listings | CouponDunia | Remit2India | Techradar | AliveAR | Getsmartapp App | ETMoney Finance App | Feedback | Auto | Longwalks App

All of these questions can help determine what type of video you should make and where you should post it. For example, if your target audience is not familiar with your company, you probably want to make a video that focuses on brand awareness before producing an in-depth, product video. You’ll also want to host your video on a site that already has a large reach, like YouTube. 


Another key to viral marketing is understanding triggers, which means associating your company with something that, when your customers see or experience, it triggers a thought of your company. It can be something as simple as a day of the week. Take Rebecca Black for example - her video for her song "Friday" has accomplished viral marketing because people search for it more often on Fridays than any other day of the week.

Cross-platform measurement: The number of marketing channels continues to expand, as measurement practices are growing in complexity. A cross-platform view must be used to unify audience measurement and media planning. Market researchers need to understand how the Omni-channel affects consumer's behaviour, although when advertisements are on a consumer's device this does not get measured. Significant aspects to cross-platform measurement involves de-duplication and understanding that you have reached an incremental level with another platform, rather than delivering more impressions against people that have previously been reached (Whiteside, 2016).[42] An example is ‘ESPN and comScore partnered on Project Blueprint discovering the sports broadcaster achieved a 21% increase in unduplicated daily reach thanks to digital advertising’ (Whiteside, 2016).[42] Television and radio industries are the electronic media, which competes with digital and other technological advertising. Yet television advertising is not directly competing with online digital advertising due to being able to cross platform with digital technology. Radio also gains power through cross platforms, in online streaming content. Television and radio continue to persuade and affect the audience, across multiple platforms (Fill, Hughes, & De Franceso, 2013).[45]
YouTube SEO is search engine optimization to help people find your videos more easily. With millions of videos on the platform, you need to use video SEO to make your videos stand out. To optimize videos effectively, it’s important to do keyword research and to use those keywords in your video title, description, and tags. If people find and click your video, that will improve its rank. Other aspects of YouTube SEO include viewing time, comments and shares.
Word-of-mouth marketing, which occurs when others tell each other about a business, is also considered a form of referral marketing. Word-of-mouth is the principle behind things that “go viral,” like the Old Spice commercials featuring Isaiah Mustafa that were originally released on YouTube. This tongue-in-cheek campaign, with the tag line “The man your man could smell like,” became the fastest growing online viral campaign ever, with 23 million views in 36 hours—and generated a sales increase of 107% for Old Spice. (See also Word-of-Mouth Marketing)

To make your videos as memorable as possible, ensure that you’re keeping them in line with your brand strategy. This means keeping colors, fonts, logos and voice the same in your video marketing as they are in your blogs and articles. While videos do things text content doesn’t, users should still be able to recognize the style and format of your brand’s videos online.
Regular retailers selling a specific product rarely have the time and/or energy to build their own referral solutions. A customized in-house referral program is likely to be far down the chain of priorities. Before you even think about building your own referral program (which requires technical expertise), you need to figure out how to get your online payments processing in order, your inventory in order, etc. (See: When is Referral Marketing NOT for you?)
Mobile advertising is growing rapidly for several reasons. There are more mobile devices in the field, connectivity speeds have improved (which, among other things, allows for richer media ads to be served quickly), screen resolutions have advanced, mobile publishers are becoming more sophisticated about incorporating ads, and consumers are using mobile devices more extensively.[24]:14 The Interactive Advertising Bureau predicts continued growth in mobile advertising with the adoption of location-based targeting and other technological features not available or relevant on personal computers.[24]:14 In July 2014 Facebook reported advertising revenue for the June 2014 quarter of $2.68 billion, an increase of 67 percent over the second quarter of 2013. Of that, mobile advertising revenue accounted for around 62 percent, an increase of 41 percent on the previous year.
In November 1994, CDNow launched its BuyWeb program. CDNow had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors might be interested in purchasing. These websites could also offer a link that would take visitors directly to CDNow to purchase the albums. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose from conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CD's directly from its website but did not want to implement this capability itself. Geffen asked CDNow if it could design a program where CDNow would handle the order fulfillment. Geffen realized that CDNow could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website, bypassing the CDNow home page and going directly to an artist's music page.[14]
Advertisers may also deliver ads based on a user's suspected geography through geotargeting. A user's IP address communicates some geographic information (at minimum, the user's country or general region). The geographic information from an IP can be supplemented and refined with other proxies or information to narrow the range of possible locations.[28] For example, with mobile devices, advertisers can sometimes use a phone's GPS receiver or the location of nearby mobile towers.[29] Cookies and other persistent data on a user's machine may provide help narrowing a user's location further.[28]
Before the challenge, ALS was known to much fewer people. But things changed after the challenge, and it was everywhere on Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, news, events, etc. The reason was the visibility created by the campaign. You need to create awareness about your brand through various marketing channels. People will prefer to buy from you only if they know about you.
Word-of-mouth marketing, which occurs when others tell each other about a business, is also considered a form of referral marketing. Word-of-mouth is the principle behind things that “go viral,” like the Old Spice commercials featuring Isaiah Mustafa that were originally released on YouTube. This tongue-in-cheek campaign, with the tag line “The man your man could smell like,” became the fastest growing online viral campaign ever, with 23 million views in 36 hours—and generated a sales increase of 107% for Old Spice. (See also Word-of-Mouth Marketing)

Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]
Your Brand Persona and Target Audience. When you eventually start creating content, you have to know who you’re talking to and tailor your brand voice to appeal to them uniquely. If you aren’t targeting the right audience (those people who will lean in to hear what you’re saying), you won’t find success. And, if you can’t find a way to stand out, you’ll blend into the hordes of other brands competing for attention in your industry.
Social media is one of the most effective ways to connect with your audience. And, it will make it much easier for people that “like” your website to learn about new content that’s published on your blog – plus, getting the word out about money saving opportunities via a tweet or a post is an excellent way to re-engage shoppers that were on the fence.
If your customers transact with you on a weekly or monthly basis, then it makes sense to incentivize referrals with account credits or discounts towards future purchases. However, if your customers purchase from you less than a few times per year, that reward won’t carry the same weight. In fact, it might send signals that you don’t really understand your customers.
You might also harness the power of Other People’s Networks, or OPN. It’s one of the many tactics taught by Growth Tribe, Europe’s first growth hacking academy with students from over 415 companies across the continent. Practicing what they preach, they used OPN for their International Growth Marketing Summit, an entirely online 8-hour conference with 15 renowned guest speakers from the industry.
Collaborative Environment: A collaborative environment can be set up between the organization, the technology service provider, and the digital agencies to optimize effort, resource sharing, reusability and communications.[36] Additionally, organizations are inviting their customers to help them better understand how to service them. This source of data is called User Generated Content. Much of this is acquired via company websites where the organization invites people to share ideas that are then evaluated by other users of the site. The most popular ideas are evaluated and implemented in some form. Using this method of acquiring data and developing new products can foster the organizations relationship with their customer as well as spawn ideas that would otherwise be overlooked. UGC is low-cost advertising as it is directly from the consumers and can save advertising costs for the organisation.
Balancing search and display for digital display ads are important; marketers tend to look at the last search and attribute all of the effectiveness to this. This then disregards other marketing efforts, which establish brand value within the consumers mind. ComScore determined through drawing on data online, produced by over one hundred multichannel retailers that digital display marketing poses strengths when compared with or positioned alongside, paid search (Whiteside, 2016).[42] This is why it is advised that when someone clicks on a display ad the company opens a landing page, not its home page. A landing page typically has something to draw the customer in to search beyond this page. Things such as free offers that the consumer can obtain through giving the company contact information so that they can use retargeting communication strategies (Square2Marketing, 2012).[43] Commonly marketers see increased sales among people exposed to a search ad. But the fact of how many people you can reach with a display campaign compared to a search campaign should be considered. Multichannel retailers have an increased reach if the display is considered in synergy with search campaigns. Overall both search and display aspects are valued as display campaigns build awareness for the brand so that more people are likely to click on these digital ads when running a search campaign (Whiteside, 2016).[42]

"You couldn't attach yourself to anyone better than Jim. As far as I'm concerned he's worth EVERY penny he will charge you. Jim is a straight shooter, goes above and beyond when called for, and will be committed to the things he tells you he can do. My business has exploded on the internet and I don't plan on looking back. Jim will tell you what he can deliver and I feel like he is one of the nicest, most down to earth business people I've ever dealt with." Fred J.


Even if you work for a large brand and aren’t able to interact with customers one-on-one, you can still build relationships through your digital marketing initiatives. For example, you can send personalized emails that highlight a customer’s individual interests, reminding them that you know them and care about who they are. You can also share be transparent. Showing what goes on behind the scenes helps customers see who you really are.
Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]
Referral marketing is a powerful conversion tactic, as people value “realness” and are more apt to try a product or service that’s recommended by a friend or some other trusted source than something they come across via traditional advertising. Referrals can come from friends, influencers, product reviews, news articles, and testimonials. In order to launch a successful referral campaign, brands must offer compelling incentives so customers want to refer others. They must also make the referral process as easy to use as possible. Additionally, brands must treat their referral program as they would a new product launch and educate both customers and employees on how the program works.
In order to engage customers, retailers must shift from a linear marketing approach of one-way communication to a value exchange model of mutual dialogue and benefit-sharing between provider and consumer.[21] Exchanges are more non-linear, free flowing, and both one-to-many or one-on-one.[5] The spread of information and awareness can occur across numerous channels, such as the blogosphere, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and a variety of other platforms. Online communities and social networks allow individuals to easily create content and publicly publish their opinions, experiences, and thoughts and feelings about many topics and products, hyper-accelerating the diffusion of information.[22]
From this portal, you’ll find all sorts of viewer insights. Discover what types of video content your audience likes and how they watch their videos. Then, channel those insights directly into your marketing automation software or CRM. For example, if that prospect you’ve been monitoring views your latest case study video, you’ll be notified straightaway.

Looking back, 2017 was a time when you could rely on certain constants. Golden State was going to play Cleveland in the NBA Finals, shaving blade preferences did not correlate with core values, and if you knew anything about digital marketing, you were fully pivoting to video. But what do we really know in 2019? I mean, who is Golden State going to play this year? Does Gillette even have a monthly subscription? (Yep.) And with the scandal around Facebook's false video metrics hitting us square in the face last year, what are marketers to believe about the future of social video marketing?

A successful customer referral program can become the lifeblood of your business, but it won’t do anything if it’s not backed by the proper resources. The program should be strategically planned out, regularly measured, and managed on an ongoing basis. When you invest in your program, you can see unimaginable growth through this marketing channel (just look at the ROI of referral marketing by different industries). You can’t achieve success if you’re treating your referral program as an afterthought. Successful programs need structure and commitment from within your company. For this reason, many brands choose automated and streamlined platforms to ensure ease and satisfaction from both a consumer and company perspective.
Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree, because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. Those methods include organic search engine optimization (SEO), paid search engine marketing (PPC – Pay Per Click), e-mail marketing, content marketing, and (in some sense) display advertising. On the other hand, affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques, such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[citation needed]
If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates, it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly if a contact method can be located.

A text ad displays text-based hyperlinks. Text-based ads may display separately from a web page's primary content, or they can be embedded by hyperlinking individual words or phrases to advertiser's websites. Text ads may also be delivered through email marketing or text message marketing. Text-based ads often render faster than graphical ads and can be harder for ad-blocking software to block.[50]


There is no shortage of products you’ll be able to promote. You’ll have the ability to pick and choose products that you personally believe in, so make sure that your campaigns center around truly valuable products that consumers will enjoy. You’ll achieve an impressive conversion rate while simultaneously establishing the reliability of your personal brand.
Here in UK i’ve come across this company that is offering free affiliate CMS tools backed by vast data of online stores and most important for me was 100% commission that caught my attention. So here is the list of their tools revglue(.)com/free-wordpress-plugins should i go for these? If can suggest or maybe recommend something that will be really helpful.
Endorsements are a form of advertising that uses famous personalities or celebrities who command a high degree of recognition, trust, respect or awareness amongst the people. Such people advertise for a product lending their names or images to promote a product or service. Advertisers and clients hope such approval, or endorsement by a celebrity, will influence buyers favourably. For example, Sach
Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.
The effectiveness of a referral program depends, in part, on when a user is prompted to make a referral. If a user is prompted to make a referral right after an unhappy experience your chance of them making a referral is low because they don’t want to tell their friends about bad products. On the flip side, if a user is prompted right after a happy moment they are much more likely to make a referral even if the have previously had a bad experience.
Within your channel itself, you can also organize videos into playlists, making it easy for your audience to search within your content. As a social platform, viewers can engage with your videos by liking and commenting on them, providing you another chance to interact with your audience. YouTube also offers a variety of advertising options for more sophisticated targeting.

The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
“It’s an incredibly fast-moving market where technology is becoming increasingly specialized and unless you are really a significant player, and we are very much a medium-sized retailer, it’s impossible to keep on top of it all,” said Kohn. There are certain areas where you have to use third parties. The experience is also becoming increasingly componentised and there are these point solutions, such as search, merchandise where your core solution may not be adequate.”
The targets for referrals should not look impossible or difficult to achieve. Referring up to 15 may be easy but most companies offer benefits even if five customers are referred and result in conversions.  Whether it is cash or products or other benefits, the rewards should be good enough for customers, employees to take that extra effort. It should be clearly mentioned whether the rewards are given for lead generation or for sales conversion.
Similarly, when new affiliates join a network, their business information enters the marketplace. This includes how long they’ve been in the network, a star rating based on historical performance, country of origin, promotional methods, and contact information. As an ecommerce site, you search for affiliates by vertical and filter down to find the best matches for your online business. Once you find potential affiliate partners, you send them your public commission offer, or create an entirely new offer just for them. Sometimes an affiliate will answer your offer right away, others take longer to respond, and some may not respond at all. It can be a challenge. While this form of recruiting affiliates is quick and easy, it’s difficult to bring in larger players, which is why you should perform email outreach to find the best partners.
He is the owner of jeffbullas.com. Forbes calls him a top influencer of Chief Marketing Officers and the world's top social marketing talent. Entrepreneur lists him among 50 online marketing influencers to watch. Inc.com has him on the list of 20 digital marketing experts to follow on Twitter. Oanalytica named him #1 Global Content Marketing Influencer. BizHUMM ranks him as the world's #1 business blogger. Learn More
"Jim, You rock!, and thank you SO MUCH for your extremely fast response to my question. Please know that your team have been a BLAST to work with, and that everyone here is extremely grateful and values the partnership our companies have formed over the past year or so. If there is anything that I can ever do to return the favor, please do not hesitate to ask." Tom W.

Our SEM team has been managing paid search since its inception and is driven solely by analytics and financial data. Our core focus is to expand our clients’ campaigns, drive quality traffic that will foster conversions and increase revenue, while decreasing the cost per acquisition. IMI’s PPC team members are recognized thought leaders, active bloggers and speakers and major tradeshows, and care deeply about each and every client. We manage our client’s budgets as if it was our own, tracking every dollar and optimizing towards very specific milestones and metrics.
When you think about the marketing process it is quite easy to recognize that it does not only relates to the provider, it also relates directly to the customer. Marketing holds all of the tools and strategies used to entice a customer into buying or trying a product. If the marketing is successful then your company will gain value through the consumers purchase. An example of this is something as simple as cold calling. Cold calling is a very old marketing technique that simply requires you to dial a phone number and try to sell your product or a service to the person that answers the phone. Once you are live on the phone you use your sales pitch to try and sell the product. This is marketing. Advertising on billboards, magazines, television; all of these are part of the marketing process.
Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[34] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.
We are social creatures, so it is only natural that we instinctively share our experiences with the ones closest to us. We advise our friends and family by sharing our positive experiences, but also warning them of negative experiences. Here's the catch! These recommendations affect us much more than other marketing messages. It is quite logical, we rely more on our friends than we trust advertisement, paid expert opinions and similar media!
With brands using the Internet space to reach their target customers; digital marketing has become a beneficial career option as well. At present, companies are more into hiring individuals familiar in implementing digital marketing strategies and this has led the stream to become a preferred choice amongst individuals inspiring institutes to come up and offer professional courses in Digital Marketing.

While it is possible to see results from your marketing efforts quickly, the reality is that marketing, especially the type that generates long-term results and referrals, takes time. You're competing in an increasingly crowded and loud marketplace. The better you can connect with your ideal market and develop a relationship with it, the better your results will be. If you provide a great product or service and are attentive to your customers, your customers will provide you with positive reviews, referrals, and testimonials that will help you stand out in the crowd.
There is debate on the origination and the popularization of the specific term viral marketing, though some of the earliest uses of the current term are attributed to the Harvard Business School graduate Tim Draper and faculty member Jeffrey Rayport. The term was later popularized by Rayport in the 1996 Fast Company article "The Virus of Marketing",[12] and Tim Draper and Steve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe Hotmail's practice of appending advertising to outgoing mail from their users.[13] An earlier attestation of the term is found in PC User magazine in 1989, but with a somewhat differing meaning.[14][15]
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